用Python扩展英语收缩
nlp
python
7
0

英语有几种缩略语 。例如:

you've -> you have
he's -> he is

在进行自然语言处理时,有时会引起头痛。是否有Python库可以扩展这些收缩?

参考资料:
Stack Overflow
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共 6 个回答
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我将Wikipedia的收缩到扩展页面制作成了python字典(请参见下文)

注意,如您所料,查询字典时绝对要使用双引号:

在此处输入图片说明

另外,我在Wikipedia页面中保留了多个选项。随意修改它。请注意,对正确的扩展进行消歧将是一个棘手的问题!

contractions = { 
"ain't": "am not / are not / is not / has not / have not",
"aren't": "are not / am not",
"can't": "cannot",
"can't've": "cannot have",
"'cause": "because",
"could've": "could have",
"couldn't": "could not",
"couldn't've": "could not have",
"didn't": "did not",
"doesn't": "does not",
"don't": "do not",
"hadn't": "had not",
"hadn't've": "had not have",
"hasn't": "has not",
"haven't": "have not",
"he'd": "he had / he would",
"he'd've": "he would have",
"he'll": "he shall / he will",
"he'll've": "he shall have / he will have",
"he's": "he has / he is",
"how'd": "how did",
"how'd'y": "how do you",
"how'll": "how will",
"how's": "how has / how is / how does",
"I'd": "I had / I would",
"I'd've": "I would have",
"I'll": "I shall / I will",
"I'll've": "I shall have / I will have",
"I'm": "I am",
"I've": "I have",
"isn't": "is not",
"it'd": "it had / it would",
"it'd've": "it would have",
"it'll": "it shall / it will",
"it'll've": "it shall have / it will have",
"it's": "it has / it is",
"let's": "let us",
"ma'am": "madam",
"mayn't": "may not",
"might've": "might have",
"mightn't": "might not",
"mightn't've": "might not have",
"must've": "must have",
"mustn't": "must not",
"mustn't've": "must not have",
"needn't": "need not",
"needn't've": "need not have",
"o'clock": "of the clock",
"oughtn't": "ought not",
"oughtn't've": "ought not have",
"shan't": "shall not",
"sha'n't": "shall not",
"shan't've": "shall not have",
"she'd": "she had / she would",
"she'd've": "she would have",
"she'll": "she shall / she will",
"she'll've": "she shall have / she will have",
"she's": "she has / she is",
"should've": "should have",
"shouldn't": "should not",
"shouldn't've": "should not have",
"so've": "so have",
"so's": "so as / so is",
"that'd": "that would / that had",
"that'd've": "that would have",
"that's": "that has / that is",
"there'd": "there had / there would",
"there'd've": "there would have",
"there's": "there has / there is",
"they'd": "they had / they would",
"they'd've": "they would have",
"they'll": "they shall / they will",
"they'll've": "they shall have / they will have",
"they're": "they are",
"they've": "they have",
"to've": "to have",
"wasn't": "was not",
"we'd": "we had / we would",
"we'd've": "we would have",
"we'll": "we will",
"we'll've": "we will have",
"we're": "we are",
"we've": "we have",
"weren't": "were not",
"what'll": "what shall / what will",
"what'll've": "what shall have / what will have",
"what're": "what are",
"what's": "what has / what is",
"what've": "what have",
"when's": "when has / when is",
"when've": "when have",
"where'd": "where did",
"where's": "where has / where is",
"where've": "where have",
"who'll": "who shall / who will",
"who'll've": "who shall have / who will have",
"who's": "who has / who is",
"who've": "who have",
"why's": "why has / why is",
"why've": "why have",
"will've": "will have",
"won't": "will not",
"won't've": "will not have",
"would've": "would have",
"wouldn't": "would not",
"wouldn't've": "would not have",
"y'all": "you all",
"y'all'd": "you all would",
"y'all'd've": "you all would have",
"y'all're": "you all are",
"y'all've": "you all have",
"you'd": "you had / you would",
"you'd've": "you would have",
"you'll": "you shall / you will",
"you'll've": "you shall have / you will have",
"you're": "you are",
"you've": "you have"
}
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我为此找到了一个库, contractions它非常简单。

import contractions
print(contractions.fix("you've"))
print(contractions.fix("he's"))

输出:

you have
he is
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上面的答案将很好地工作,并且可能对于模棱两可的收缩会更好(尽管我认为并没有那么多模棱两可的情况)。我将使用更具可读性和易于维护的内容:

import re

def decontracted(phrase):
    # specific
    phrase = re.sub(r"won\'t", "will not", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"can\'t", "can not", phrase)

    # general
    phrase = re.sub(r"n\'t", " not", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'re", " are", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'s", " is", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'d", " would", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'ll", " will", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'t", " not", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'ve", " have", phrase)
    phrase = re.sub(r"\'m", " am", phrase)
    return phrase


test = "Hey I'm Yann, how're you and how's it going ? That's interesting: I'd love to hear more about it."
print(decontracted(test))
# Hey I am Yann, how are you and how is it going ? That is interesting: I would love to hear more about it.

它可能有一些我没有想到的缺陷。

我的其他答案转发

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对于https://pypi.python.org/pypi/pycontractions/1.0.1而言,这是一个非常酷且易于使用的库。

使用示例(链接中有详细信息):

from pycontractions import Contractions

# Load your favorite word2vec model
cont = Contractions('GoogleNews-vectors-negative300.bin')

# optional, prevents loading on first expand_texts call
cont.load_models()

out = list(cont.expand_texts(["I'd like to know how I'd done that!",
                            "We're going to the zoo and I don't think I'll be home for dinner.",
                            "Theyre going to the zoo and she'll be home for dinner."], precise=True))
print(out)

您还需要GoogleNews-vectors-negative300.bin链接,以在上面的pycontractions链接中进行下载。 * python3中的示例代码。

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您不需要库,例如可以使用reg exp。

>>> import re
>>> contractions_dict = {
...     'didn\'t': 'did not',
...     'don\'t': 'do not',
... }
>>> contractions_re = re.compile('(%s)' % '|'.join(contractions_dict.keys()))
>>> def expand_contractions(s, contractions_dict=contractions_dict):
...     def replace(match):
...         return contractions_dict[match.group(0)]
...     return contractions_re.sub(replace, s)
...
>>> expand_contractions('You don\'t need a library')
'You do not need a library'
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在这里,我想对alko的答案加些什么。如果您查看维基百科,则提到的英语收缩次数少于100。当然,在实际情况下,该数字可能会更多。但是,我仍然可以确定,英语缩略词的全部用词是200-300个。现在,您是否想为这些资源获得一个单独的库(不过,我不认为您正在寻找的内容确实存在)?但是,您可以使用字典和正则表达式轻松解决此问题。我建议使用一个不错的标记器作为Natural Language Toolkit ,其余的实现自己应该没有问题。

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